‘The Ballot or the Bullet’
African America - Freedom Movement
by Malcolm X
May 19, 1925 - February 21, 1965
Malcolm´s "The Bullet or the Ballot" speech, delivered during the interval between his separation from the Nation of Islam and his pilgrimage to Mecca, in April, 1964, lays out the new direction he envisioned for the Black Freedom Movement. It was also prescient, forecasting the explosive growth of Black Nationalism and militancy, and the Democratic Party´s decline once the Dixiecrats switched allegiances to the Republicans. "When you see the amount of power that would be lost by the Democratic Party if it were to lose the Dixiecrat wing...you can see where it´s against the interests of the Democrats to give voting rights to Negroes in states where the Democrats have been in complete power and authority ever since the Civil War."
‘The Ballot or the Bullet´
by Malcolm X
May 19, 1925 - February 21, 1965
Malcolm X gave this speech April 3, 1964, in Cleveland, Ohio, soon after his final separation from the Nation of Islam and just before his pilgrimage to Mecca.
"I believe in action on all fronts by whatever means necessary."
Mr. Moderator, Brother Lomax, brothers and sisters, friends and enemies: I just can´t believe everyone in here is a friend, and I don´t want to leave anybody out. The question tonight, as I understand it, is The Negro Revolt, and Where Do We Go From Here? or What Next? In my little humble way of understanding it, it points toward either the ballot or the bullet.
Before we try and explain what is meant by the ballot or the bullet, I would like to clarify something concerning myself. I´m still a Muslim; my religion is still Islam. That´s my personal belief. Just as Adam Clayton Powell is a Christian minister who heads the Abyssinian Baptist Church in New York, but at the same time takes part in the political struggles to try and bring about rights to the black people in this country; and Dr. Martin Luther King is a Christian minister down in Atlanta, Georgia, who heads another organization fighting for the civil rights of black people in this country; and Reverend Galamison, I guess you´ve heard of him, is another Christian minister in New York who has been deeply involved in the school boycotts to eliminate segregated education; well, I myself am a minister, not a Christian minister, but a Muslim minister; and I believe in action on all fronts by whatever means necessary.
Although I´m still a Muslim, I´m not here tonight to discuss my religion. I´m not here to try and change your religion. I´m not here to argue or discuss anything that we differ about, because it´s time for us to submerge our differences and realize that it is best for us to first see that we have the same problem, a common problem, a problem that will make you catch hell whether you´re a Baptist, or a Methodist, or a Muslim, or a nationalist. Whether you´re educated or illiterate, whether you live on the boulevard or in the alley, you´re going to catch hell just like I am. We´re all in the same boat and we all are going to catch the same hell from the same man. He just happens to be a white man. All of us have suffered here, in this country, political oppression at the hands of the white man, economic exploitation at the hands of the white man, and social degradation at the hands of the white man.
Now in speaking like this, it doesn´t mean that we´re anti-white, but it does mean we´re anti-exploitation, we´re anti-degradation, we´re anti-oppression. And if the white man doesn´t want us to be anti-him, let him stop oppressing and exploiting and degrading us. Whether we are Christians or Muslims or nationalists or agnostics or atheists, we must first learn to forget our differences. If we have differences, let us differ in the closet; when we come out in front, let us not have anything to argue about until we get finished arguing with the man. If the late President Kennedy could get together with Khrushchev and exchange some wheat, we certainly have more in common with each other than Kennedy and Khrushchev had with each other.
"If the white man doesn´t want us to be anti-him, let him stop oppressing and exploiting and degrading us."
If we don´t do something real soon, I think you´ll have to agree that we´re going to be forced either to use the ballot or the bullet. It´s one or the other in 1964. It isn´t that time is running out - time has run out!
1964 threatens to be the most explosive year America has ever witnessed. The most explosive year. Why? It´s also a political year. It´s the year when all of the white politicians will be back in the so-called Negro community jiving you and me for some votes. The year when all of the white political crooks will be right back in your and my community with their false promises, building up our hopes for a letdown, with their trickery and their treachery, with their false promises which they don´t intend to keep. As they nourish these dissatisfactions, it can only lead to one thing, an explosion; and now we have the type of black man on the scene in America today - I´m sorry, Brother Lomax - who just doesn´t intend to turn the other cheek any longer.
Don´t let anybody tell you anything about the odds are against you. If they draft you, they send you to Korea and make you face 800 million Chinese. If you can be brave over there, you can be brave right here. These odds aren´t as great as those odds. And if you fight here, you will at least know what you´re fighting for.
I´m not a politician, not even a student of politics; in fact, I´m not a student of much of anything. I´m not a Democrat. I´m not a Republican, and I don´t even consider myself an American. If you and I were Americans, there´d be no problem. Those Honkies that just got off the boat, they´re already Americans; Polacks are already Americans; the Italian refugees are already Americans. Everything that came out of Europe, every blue-eyed thing, is already an American. And as long as you and I have been over here, we aren´t Americans yet.
Well, I am one who doesn´t believe in deluding myself. I´m not going to sit at your table and watch you eat, with nothing on my plate, and call myself a diner. Sitting at the table doesn´t make you a diner, unless you eat some of what´s on that plate. Being here in America doesn´t make you an American. Being born here in America doesn´t make you an American. Why, if birth made you American, you wouldn´t need any legislation; you wouldn´t need any amendments to the Constitution; you wouldn´t be faced with civil-rights filibustering in Washington, D.C., right now. They don´t have to pass civil-rights legislation to make a Polack an American.
"I don´t see any American dream; I see an American nightmare."
No, I´m not an American. I´m one of the 22 million black people who are the victims of Americanism. One of the 22 million black people who are the victims of democracy, nothing but disguised hypocrisy. So, I´m not standing here speaking to you as an American, or a patriot, or a flag-saluter, or a flag-waver - no, not I. I´m speaking as a victim of this American system. And I see America through the eyes of the victim. I don´t see any American dream; I see an American nightmare.
These 22 million victims are waking up. Their eyes are coming open. They´re beginning to see what they used to only look at. They´re becoming politically mature. They are realizing that there are new political trends from coast to coast. As they see these new political trends, it´s possible for them to see that every time there´s an election the races are so close that they have to have a recount. They had to recount in Massachusetts to see who was going to be governor, it was so close. It was the same way in Rhode Island, in Minnesota, and in many other parts of the country. And the same with Kennedy and Nixon when they ran for president. It was so close they had to count all over again. Well, what does this mean? It means that when white people are evenly divided, and black people have a bloc of votes of their own, it is left up to them to determine who´s going to sit in the White House and who´s going to be in the dog house.
It was the black man´s vote that put the present administration in Washington, D.C. Your vote, your dumb vote, your ignorant vote, your wasted vote put in an administration in Washington, D.C., that has seen fit to pass every kind of legislation imaginable, saving you until last, then filibustering on top of that. And your and my leaders have the audacity to run around clapping their hands and talk about how much progress we´re making. And what a good president we have. If he wasn´t good in Texas, he sure can´t be good in Washington, D.C. Because Texas is a lynch state. It is in the same breath as Mississippi, no different; only they lynch you in Texas with a Texas accent and lynch you in Mississippi with a Mississippi accent. And these Negro leaders have the audacity to go and have some coffee in the White House with a Texan, a Southern cracker - that´s all he is - and then come out and tell you and me that he´s going to be better for us because, since he´s from the South, he knows how to deal with the Southerners. What kind of logic is that? Let Eastland be president, he´s from the South too. He should be better able to deal with them than Johnson.
In this present administration they have in the House of Representatives 257 Democrats to only 177 Republicans. They control two-thirds of the House vote. Why can´t they pass something that will help you and me? In the Senate, there are 67 senators who are of the Democratic Party. Only 33 of them are Republicans. Why, the Democrats have got the government sewed up, and you´re the one who sewed it up for them. And what have they given you for it? Four years in office, and just now getting around to some civil-rights legislation. Just now, after everything else is gone, out of the way, they´re going to sit down now and play with you all summer long - the same old giant con game that they call filibuster. All those are in cahoots together. Don´t you ever think they´re not in cahoots together, for the man that is heading the civil-rights filibuster is a man from Georgia named Richard Russell. When Johnson became president, the first man he asked for when he got back to Washington, D.C., was Dicky - that´s how tight they are. That´s his boy, that´s his pal, that´s his buddy. But they´re playing that old con game. One of them makes believe he´s for you, and he´s got it fixed where the other one is so tight against you, he never has to keep his promise.
So it´s time in 1964 to wake up. And when you see them coming up with that kind of conspiracy, let them know your eyes are open. And let them know you - something else that´s wide open too. It´s got to be the ballot or the bullet. The ballot or the bullet. If you´re afraid to use an expression like that, you should get on out of the country; you should get back in the cotton patch; you should get back in the alley. They get all the Negro vote, and after they get it, the Negro gets nothing in return. All they did when they got to Washington was give a few big Negroes big jobs. Those big Negroes didn´t need big jobs, they already had jobs. That´s camouflage, that´s trickery, that´s treachery, window-dressing. I´m not trying to knock out the Democrats for the Republicans. We´ll get to them in a minute. But it is true; you put the Democrats first and the Democrats put you last.
Look at it the way it is. What alibis do they use, since they control Congress and the Senate? What alibi do they use when you and I ask, Well, when are you going to keep your promise? They blame the Dixiecrats. What is a Dixiecrat? A Democrat. A Dixiecrat is nothing but a Democrat in disguise. The titular head of the Democrats is also the head of the Dixiecrats, because the Dixiecrats are a part of the Democratic Party. The Democrats have never kicked the Dixiecrats out of the party. The Dixiecrats bolted themselves once, but the Democrats didn´t put them out. Imagine, these lowdown Southern segregationists put the Northern Democrats down. But the Northern Democrats have never put the Dixiecrats down. No, look at that thing the way it is. They have got a con game going on, a political con game, and you and I are in the middle. It´s time for you and me to wake up and start looking at it like it is, and trying to understand it like it is; and then we can deal with it like it is.
"You put the Democrats first and the Democrats put you last."
The Dixiecrats in Washington, D.C., control the key committees that run the government. The only reason the Dixiecrats control these committees is because they have seniority. The only reason they have seniority is because they come from states where Negroes can´t vote. This is not even a government that´s based on democracy. lt. is not a government that is made up of representatives of the people. Half of the people in the South can´t even vote. Eastland is not even supposed to be in Washington. Half of the senators and congressmen who occupy these key positions in Washington, D.C., are there illegally, are there unconstitutionally.
I was in Washington, D.C., a week ago Thursday, when they were debating whether or not they should let the bill come onto the floor. And in the back of the room where the Senate meets, there´s a huge map of the United States, and on that map it shows the location of Negroes throughout the country. And it shows that the Southern section of the country, the states that are most heavily concentrated with Negroes, are the ones that have senators and congressmen standing up filibustering and doing all other kinds of trickery to keep the Negro from being able to vote. This is pitiful. But it´s not pitiful for us any longer; it´s actually pitiful for the white man, because soon now, as the Negro awakens a little more and sees the vise that he´s in, sees the bag that he´s in, sees the real game that he´s in, then the Negro´s going to develop a new tactic.
These senators and congressmen actually violate the constitutional amendments that guarantee the people of that particular state or county the right to vote. And the Constitution itself has within it the machinery to expel any representative from a state where the voting rights of the people are violated. You don´t even need new legislation. Any person in Congress right now, who is there from a state or a district where the voting rights of the people are violated, that particular person should be expelled from Congress. And when you expel him, you´ve removed one of the obstacles in the path of any real meaningful legislation in this country. In fact, when you expel them, you don´t need new legislation, because they will be replaced by black representatives from counties and districts where the black man is in the majority, not in the minority.
If the black man in these Southern states had his full voting rights, the key Dixiecrats in Washington, D. C., which means the key Democrats in Washington, D.C., would lose their seats. The Democratic Party itself would lose its power. It would cease to be powerful as a party. When you see the amount of power that would be lost by the Democratic Party if it were to lose the Dixiecrat wing, or branch, or element, you can see where it´s against the interests of the Democrats to give voting rights to Negroes in states where the Democrats have been in complete power and authority ever since the Civil War. You just can´t belong to that Party without analyzing it.
I say again, I´m not anti-Democrat, I´m not anti-Republican, I´m not anti-anything. I´m just questioning their sincerity, and some of the strategy that they´ve been using on our people by promising them promises that they don´t intend to keep. When you keep the Democrats in power, you´re keeping the Dixiecrats in power. I doubt that my good Brother Lomax will deny that. A vote for a Democrat is a vote for a Dixiecrat. That´s why, in 1964, it´s time now for you and me to become more politically mature and realize what the ballot is for; what we´re supposed to get when we cast a ballot; and that if we don´t cast a ballot, it´s going to end up in a situation where we´re going to have to cast a bullet. It´s either a ballot or a bullet.
In the North, they do it a different way. They have a system that´s known as gerrymandering, whatever that means. It means when Negroes become too heavily concentrated in a certain area, and begin to gain too much political power, the white man comes along and changes the district lines. You may say, Why do you keep saying white man? Because it´s the white man who does it. I haven´t ever seen any Negro changing any lines. They don´t let him get near the line. It´s the white man who does this. And usually, it´s the white man who grins at you the most, and pats you on the back, and is supposed to be your friend. He may be friendly, but he´s not your friend.
So, what I´m trying to impress upon you, in essence, is this: You and I in America are faced not with a segregationist conspiracy, we´re faced with a government conspiracy. Everyone who´s filibustering is a senator - that´s the government. Everyone who´s finagling in Washington, D.C., is a congressman-that´s the government. You don´t have anybody putting blocks in your path but people who are a part of the government. The same government that you go abroad to fight for and die for is the government that is in a conspiracy to deprive you of your voting rights, deprive you of your economic opportunities, deprive you of decent housing, deprive you of decent education. You don´t need to go to the employer alone, it is the government itself, the government of America, that is responsible for the oppression and exploitation and degradation of black people in this country. And you should drop it in their lap. This government has failed the Negro. This so-called democracy has failed the Negro. And all these white liberals have definitely failed the Negro.
"These handkerchief-heads who have been dillydallying and pussy footing and compromising - we don´t intend to let them pussyfoot and dillydally and compromise any longer."
So, where do we go from here? First, we need some friends. We need some new allies. The entire civil-rights struggle needs a new interpretation, a broader interpretation. We need to look at this civil-rights thing from another angle - from the inside as well as from the outside. To those of us whose philosophy is black nationalism, the only way you can get involved in the civil-rights struggl