Downloads   Galeries   Forums   Audios   Vidéos   Liens   Livre d´or   Partenaires   Contact   
  Accueil
  Actualité
  Régions/Peuples
  Historique
  Sawanité
  Le Ngondo
  Tourisme
  Littérature
  VIP
  F.A.Q
  Agendas
  Evénements
  Annonces
  Projets
  Communauté



      
05.12.2010

Race as Biology is Fiction, Racism as a Social Problem is Real 

 

Race as Biology.

When I first started teaching “race and ethnicity” at a large state university in the early 1990s, many of the textbooks in sociology defined “ethnicity” as cultural (e.g., language, religion, clothing, food, rituals) and “race” as, at least partially, “biological” (e.g., skin color, hair texture, “phenotype” – roughly face shape). Most scholars and textbooks within sociology have moved away from this crude definitional distinction, but the notion that race is a biological one has deep historical roots.

The idea that race is a biological, discrete and meaningful scientific category emerged beginning in the 17th century (1600s) and solidified in the 19th century (1800s), often based on armchair-speculation about different cultures encountered through colonialism. These baseless claims were used as ideological justification for enslaving people to steal their labor so that white colonists could extract (illegal) profit from that labor. This is the part that people miss when they argue “there’s always been racism, and there always will be.” Racist ideology has a specific history, it started a a moment in time (for a discussion of what the world was like before that, see this book). This is important because if racist ideology was created it can also be dismantled.

The rise in the idea that race is a biological category very closely tied to the development of science, but that’s different than saying race is biological. The vast majority of those doing research in this area that race is a social construction. Certainly, biology matters. And, there are physical differences between people. But what’s significant about these when it comes to race is not the biology of those differences, but the social weight we attach to them. The fact is that race still matters because racism is a real social problem.

Racism as Social Problem.

So, if race isn’t a meaningful biological category, shouldn’t we just stop talking about it? No, because the fact is that race as a social category remains a significant predictor of which groups get access to goods and resource and which groups face barriers. While the Civil Rights Act outlawed de jure forms of discrimination in public accommodations, housing, employment and education, the fact is that de facto discrimination persists. While overt individual discrimination is often easier to identify, it’s also part of that de jure discrimination that was outlawed. More pervasive today in many ways is institutional discrimination—the uneven access by group membership to resources, status, and power that stems from seemingly neutral policies and practices of organizations and institutions.

There are lots of examples of this form of racism today. The educational system is failing, and its failing black and brown kids more than any other. This failure is what one scholar has called “the educational debt.” Unemployment among blacks in the U.S. is expected to reach a 25-year high this year, hovering between 17.2% and 20%, double the unemployment rate for whites, which is around 9.8% nationally. The criminal justice system is perhaps the leading example of institutional racism. With 5 percent of the world’s population, the United States now has more than 25 percent of the world’s prisoners, and many of these are African American. One in every fifteen African American men lives in a prison or jail cell, while powerful corporations like CCA profit from this system.

These systems work together, as well. There’s an excellent – if chilling – example of this in the recent documentary, “The Lottery,” (a better film about educational inequality than the Gates-promoted “Waiting for Superman”). In the film, Susan Taylor former editor of Essence magazine and now a philanthropist, tells of a story of having a rich, white woman (unnamed) in her living room for a fund-raiser for her charity. The woman tells Taylor, “I want you to put my husband’s corporation out of business. They build prisons. To estimate the number of cells they’ll need they find the number of black boys failing fourth grade and project from the number of prison cells they’ll need based on that number.” Taylor says she’d heard that before but didn’t believe it until then. There’s also powerful research that explores the way the school-to-prison pipeline words for young, black boys. Ann Arnett Ferguson’s Bad Boys (University of Michigan Press, 1991) and Pedro Noguero’s The Trouble with Black Boys (John Wiley & Sons, 2008) are just two examples of this growing research field.

One final aspect of this racism as a social problem is that within each of these areas – education, employment, and criminal justice – is that race as biology is often used as a justification by haters to explain the inequality caused by systemic discrimination.

I ♥ Haters

Jessie Daniels, Ph.D.

 

Source:  | Hits: 12314 | Envoyer à des amis  ! | Imprimer ! | Réagir(0)

PLUS DE NOUVELLES


  test
( | 05.06.2016 | 3992 hits  | 0 R)

  Dibiye le nde njangi. Alexandre EWANDE.
( | 10.08.2014 | 19484 hits  | 0 R)

  Ruth Kotto se confie
( | 05.01.2014 | 19101 hits  | 0 R)

  Kalenda 2014
( | 27.12.2013 | 17509 hits  | 0 R)

  Qui sont les Banen ?
( | 11.11.2013 | 24200 hits  | 0 R)

  Décès du KING DEIDO ESSAKA EKWALLA ESSAKA
( | 03.10.2013 | 22477 hits  | 0 R)

  Iconoclasme Pathologique: les cas Nelson Mandela et Cheikh Anta Diop
( | 18.09.2013 | 20264 hits  | 0 R)

  Sawa Beach relancé
( | 16.09.2013 | 14887 hits  | 0 R)

  Nelson Mandela: Le Visionnaire mal compris
( | 08.09.2013 | 14055 hits  | 0 R)

  Banque Centrale de la Diaspora : un élément de solution aux problèmes de l’Afrique Noire
( | 09.08.2013 | 14570 hits  | 0 R)

  UNIVERSITES DU PETROLE ET FUTUR DE L’AFRIQUE NOIRE
( | 02.08.2013 | 14276 hits  | 0 R)

  LE GRAND SOMMET - DE LA JEUNESSE D’EDEA - SAMEDI 27 JUILLET 2013
( | 15.07.2013 | 13435 hits  | 0 R)

  Notre devoir de MÉMOIRE à l´occasion du 42ème anniversaire du décès de Ernest Ouandié
( | 15.01.2013 | 16424 hits  | 0 R)

  Les dessous du complot contre le Mali : L’étape cruciale de la 3ème guerre mondiale a déjà commencé
( | 14.01.2013 | 18729 hits  | 1 R)

  Hommage à Raymond Kotto Touah, par Gaston Ntouba
( | 06.01.2013 | 15395 hits  | 0 R)

  Lettre de Philippe Bouvard à François Hollande
( | 06.01.2013 | 14115 hits  | 0 R)

  Le Prince René Douala Bell passe le flambeau
( | 06.12.2012 | 17428 hits  | 0 R)

  Essai sur les origines, l´histoire, le parcours et l´oeuvres du Prince René Dualla Manga Bell ( 22/02/1927-06/11/2012)
( | 02.12.2012 | 21572 hits  | 0 R)

  Ngondo 2012
( | 28.11.2012 | 16893 hits  | 0 R)

  Dynastie Bélè Bélè: De Ndoumbe Lobè à René Manga Bell
( | 12.11.2012 | 21785 hits  | 0 R)

  Sa Majesté le Prince Réné DOUALA MANGA BELL est décédé.
( | 07.11.2012 | 16830 hits  | 0 R)

  La Pensée Africaine: Essai sur L´Universisme philosophique de Mbog Mbassong
( | 01.10.2012 | 13674 hits  | 0 R)

  J-J Ekindi interpelle Philemon Yang au sujet de l´implantation de l´usine Dangote
( | 04.07.2012 | 15819 hits  | 0 R)

  La Route Douala-Yabassi: Bitumage strictement interdit !!!!
( | 03.07.2012 | 22764 hits  | 0 R)

  Lettre aux Chefs Sawa
( | 03.07.2012 | 15751 hits  | 0 R)

  Hommage au Père Eric de Rosny
( | 05.03.2012 | 17753 hits  | 0 R)

  Lettre du Pr. Kum’a Ndumbe III au Synode Général de l’Eglise Evangélique du Cameroun 2012
( | 02.03.2012 | 21205 hits  | 0 R)

  Calendrier Africain "KALENDA 2012" en Duala - Français - Swahili
( | 04.12.2011 | 18093 hits  | 0 R)

  Manu Dibango : "J´ai grandi entre Halléluia et le début de Soul Makossa"
( | 17.11.2011 | 17906 hits  | 0 R)

  15. Novembre 1884 - 15 Novembre 2011. Berlin 126 ans après
( | 17.11.2011 | 15234 hits  | 0 R)

  Appel à l’intelligentsia européenne et nord-américaine. Pr. Kum’a Ndumbe III
( | 09.10.2011 | 16939 hits  | 0 R)

  LE XXIE SIECLE SERA-T-IL AFRICAIN ? Axelle Kabou
( | 09.10.2011 | 15848 hits  | 0 R)

  Libya: The real war starts now By Pepe Escobar
( | 06.10.2011 | 30097 hits  | 0 R)

  Libération de l´Afrique : Nécessite d´une Armée Révolutionnaire !
( | 20.09.2011 | 19637 hits  | 0 R)

  RACISME: Une Camerounaise tabassée pendant son rapatriement forcé
( | 15.09.2011 | 17301 hits  | 0 R)

  Propositions pour un Modèle de Nouvelle Gouvernance des Sawas
( | 11.07.2011 | 18386 hits  | 0 R)

  Lettre Ouverte d´un Africain au Président Obama et à Sarkozy
( | 28.06.2011 | 17786 hits  | 0 R)

  The Boycott France Campaign Reaches the Caribbean - Les crimes de la France contre les Noirs
( | 11.06.2011 | 17632 hits  | 0 R)

  Malimba: L´administration néocoloniale fait le hold-up sur les chefferies traditionnelles Sawa. Par Moukoudi César
( | 15.05.2011 | 20371 hits  | 0 R)

  La chose est de retour.
( | 14.04.2011 | 16333 hits  | 0 R)

  President Obama Gets His Groove Back By Attacking Africans - Cynthia McKinney
( | 07.04.2011 | 18900 hits  | 0 R)

  Le rôle des Askaris dans les invasions de l’Afrique. Par Brother Metusala Dikobe
( | 07.04.2011 | 18753 hits  | 0 R)

  Et si l´Afrique refusait le développement ? La suite ... Axelle Kabou
( | 06.04.2011 | 15770 hits  | 0 R)

  Les Chefs Dualas et la Politique Internationale au XIXe Siècle
( | 01.04.2011 | 18888 hits  | 0 R)

  Célébré au Panthéon, Aimé Césaire demeure un rebelle irrécupérable
( | 01.04.2011 | 15665 hits  | 0 R)

  Lettre ouverte à la nouvelle génération consciente et patriote
( | 01.04.2011 | 14771 hits  | 0 R)

  LES MENSONGES DE LA GUERRE DE L’OCCIDENT CONTRE LA LIBYE
( | 29.03.2011 | 15121 hits  | 0 R)

  L´Union africaine : ce projet européen ? Axelle Kabou
( | 25.03.2011 | 15290 hits  | 0 R)

  "Cri aux Africains !" Tribune d’Adame Ba Konaré, historienne et ex-Première dame du Mali
( | 24.03.2011 | 14591 hits  | 0 R)

  Psycho-Slavery: Black Boys, White Female Teachers & The Rise of A.D.H.D.
( | 13.03.2011 | 16074 hits  | 0 R)



   0 |  1 |  2 |  3 |  4 |  5 |  6 |  7 |  8 |  9 |  10 |  11 |  12 |  13 |  14 |  15 |      ... >|



Jumeaux Masao "Ngondo"

Remember Moamar Kadhafi

LIVING CHAINS OF COLONISATION






© Peuplesawa.com 2007 | WEB Technology : BN-iCOM by Biangue Networks