Downloads   Galeries   Forums   Audios   Vidéos   Liens   Livre d´or   Partenaires   Contact   
  Accueil
  Actualité
  Régions/Peuples
  Historique
  Sawanité
  Le Ngondo
  Tourisme
  Littérature
  VIP
  F.A.Q
  Agendas
  Evénements
  Annonces
  Projets
  Communauté



      
05.12.2010

Race as Biology is Fiction, Racism as a Social Problem is Real 

 

Race as Biology.

When I first started teaching “race and ethnicity” at a large state university in the early 1990s, many of the textbooks in sociology defined “ethnicity” as cultural (e.g., language, religion, clothing, food, rituals) and “race” as, at least partially, “biological” (e.g., skin color, hair texture, “phenotype” – roughly face shape). Most scholars and textbooks within sociology have moved away from this crude definitional distinction, but the notion that race is a biological one has deep historical roots.

The idea that race is a biological, discrete and meaningful scientific category emerged beginning in the 17th century (1600s) and solidified in the 19th century (1800s), often based on armchair-speculation about different cultures encountered through colonialism. These baseless claims were used as ideological justification for enslaving people to steal their labor so that white colonists could extract (illegal) profit from that labor. This is the part that people miss when they argue “there’s always been racism, and there always will be.” Racist ideology has a specific history, it started a a moment in time (for a discussion of what the world was like before that, see this book). This is important because if racist ideology was created it can also be dismantled.

The rise in the idea that race is a biological category very closely tied to the development of science, but that’s different than saying race is biological. The vast majority of those doing research in this area that race is a social construction. Certainly, biology matters. And, there are physical differences between people. But what’s significant about these when it comes to race is not the biology of those differences, but the social weight we attach to them. The fact is that race still matters because racism is a real social problem.

Racism as Social Problem.

So, if race isn’t a meaningful biological category, shouldn’t we just stop talking about it? No, because the fact is that race as a social category remains a significant predictor of which groups get access to goods and resource and which groups face barriers. While the Civil Rights Act outlawed de jure forms of discrimination in public accommodations, housing, employment and education, the fact is that de facto discrimination persists. While overt individual discrimination is often easier to identify, it’s also part of that de jure discrimination that was outlawed. More pervasive today in many ways is institutional discrimination—the uneven access by group membership to resources, status, and power that stems from seemingly neutral policies and practices of organizations and institutions.

There are lots of examples of this form of racism today. The educational system is failing, and its failing black and brown kids more than any other. This failure is what one scholar has called “the educational debt.” Unemployment among blacks in the U.S. is expected to reach a 25-year high this year, hovering between 17.2% and 20%, double the unemployment rate for whites, which is around 9.8% nationally. The criminal justice system is perhaps the leading example of institutional racism. With 5 percent of the world’s population, the United States now has more than 25 percent of the world’s prisoners, and many of these are African American. One in every fifteen African American men lives in a prison or jail cell, while powerful corporations like CCA profit from this system.

These systems work together, as well. There’s an excellent – if chilling – example of this in the recent documentary, “The Lottery,” (a better film about educational inequality than the Gates-promoted “Waiting for Superman”). In the film, Susan Taylor former editor of Essence magazine and now a philanthropist, tells of a story of having a rich, white woman (unnamed) in her living room for a fund-raiser for her charity. The woman tells Taylor, “I want you to put my husband’s corporation out of business. They build prisons. To estimate the number of cells they’ll need they find the number of black boys failing fourth grade and project from the number of prison cells they’ll need based on that number.” Taylor says she’d heard that before but didn’t believe it until then. There’s also powerful research that explores the way the school-to-prison pipeline words for young, black boys. Ann Arnett Ferguson’s Bad Boys (University of Michigan Press, 1991) and Pedro Noguero’s The Trouble with Black Boys (John Wiley & Sons, 2008) are just two examples of this growing research field.

One final aspect of this racism as a social problem is that within each of these areas – education, employment, and criminal justice – is that race as biology is often used as a justification by haters to explain the inequality caused by systemic discrimination.

I ♥ Haters

Jessie Daniels, Ph.D.

 

Source:  | Hits: 13220 | Envoyer à des amis  ! | Imprimer ! | Réagir(0)

PLUS DE NOUVELLES


  International Women´s Day 2011 (Sister Nyangon is honoured)
( | 11.03.2011 | 16294 hits  | 0 R)

  Race and Arab Nationalism in Libya by Glen Ford
( | 11.03.2011 | 15403 hits  | 0 R)

  Henriette Ekwè (Nyangon) primée aux Etats-Unis
( | 02.03.2011 | 15804 hits  | 0 R)

  Livre: COMMENT L´AFRIQUE EN EST ARRIVEE LA, par Axelle Kabou
( | 26.02.2011 | 14608 hits  | 0 R)

  Côte d´Ivoire - Le Panel de l´Union africaine propose de revenir aux Accords jamais respectés de Ouagadougou
( | 24.02.2011 | 14933 hits  | 0 R)

  Regards: La Grammaire de la Révolte
( | 14.02.2011 | 16753 hits  | 0 R)

  MISS NGONDO 2010: Ekambi Lobe
( | 12.02.2011 | 20156 hits  | 0 R)

  FOMARIC 2011: Hommage à Nkotti François
( | 09.02.2011 | 17085 hits  | 0 R)

  SCHISME DE 1814, MYTHE OU REALITE
( | 01.02.2011 | 17478 hits  | 1 R)

  CES ROIS DES BERGES DU WOURI
( | 01.02.2011 | 17668 hits  | 1 R)

  Who loves to hate Haiti? An interview with Haitian Activist Pierre Labossiere
( | 28.01.2011 | 15697 hits  | 0 R)

  COTE D´IVOIRE : L´EX REBELLE AB ACCUSE ! OUATTARA, SORO DANS LE COLLIMATEUR !
( | 13.01.2011 | 18561 hits  | 2 R)

  Kamerun: Une guerre cachée aux origines de la Françafrique (1948-1971)
( | 11.01.2011 | 17109 hits  | 0 R)

  L´imposture des Nations unies en Haïti et en Côte d´Ivoire
( | 09.01.2011 | 17690 hits  | 1 R)

  Et de quatre pour Samuel Eto’o Fils
( | 21.12.2010 | 16099 hits  | 0 R)

  Regards (sur la crise ivoirienne): En attendant le vote des bêtes sauvages...
( | 21.12.2010 | 14716 hits  | 0 R)

  Cote d´Ivoire: Face à l´impérialisme, l´avenir de l´Afrique se joue à Abidjan
( | 10.12.2010 | 15099 hits  | 0 R)

  Situation en Côte d´Ivoire: Déclaration et Appel du Bureau du Comité Directeur de l’UPC
( | 08.12.2010 | 19634 hits  | 1 R)

  Afrique, Colonisation: Invasion programmée de la Côte-d´Ivoire, par Aimé M. Moussy
( | 07.12.2010 | 14059 hits  | 0 R)

  Lettre ouverte au FESMAN III - par Rhode Bath-Schéba Makoumbou
( | 04.12.2010 | 18304 hits  | 0 R)

  Que sont devenues les anciennes Miss Ngondo ?
( | 04.12.2010 | 20536 hits  | 0 R)

  Le Ngondo, les sawa, l’Indépendance et la Réunification
( | 01.12.2010 | 18906 hits  | 0 R)

  PETIT-PAYS victime d’un coup monté. Un mandat d’arrêt contre Petit-Pays
( | 01.12.2010 | 18140 hits  | 0 R)

  L´HISTOIRE DU KABA -NGONDO
( | 01.12.2010 | 17159 hits  | 0 R)

  Le cinéaste Dikonguè Pipa - Les héros nationalistes honorés
( | 23.11.2010 | 14388 hits  | 0 R)

  Ngondo 2010: Foire, animations et gastronomie
( | 22.11.2010 | 20651 hits  | 0 R)

  la troisième édition du Festival Mondial des Arts Nègres
( | 04.11.2010 | 13842 hits  | 0 R)

  ACHILLE MBEMBE: POUR L´ABOLITION DES FRONTIÈRES HÉRITÉES DE LA COLONISATION
( | 03.11.2010 | 16029 hits  | 0 R)

  Gregory Isaacs, Jamaican reggae artist, dies at age 59
( | 30.10.2010 | 17022 hits  | 1 R)

  Calliste Ebenye: Le restaurant Sawa Village devient Mboa´su
( | 21.10.2010 | 17355 hits  | 0 R)

  Manu Dibango - Jean Serge Essous, qui était le maître ?
( | 15.10.2010 | 15942 hits  | 0 R)

  Thomas Eyoum ´a Ntoh: La longue agonie d´un chevalier de la plume
( | 16.09.2010 | 15874 hits  | 0 R)

  Charles Onana: L’Afrique centrale pourrait connaître le scénario rwandais
( | 16.09.2010 | 14684 hits  | 0 R)

  Hommage à Um Nyobé, 52 ans après !
( | 14.09.2010 | 16786 hits  | 1 R)

  Les migraines de la diaspora !
( | 28.08.2010 | 16189 hits  | 2 R)

  L’ultime Reconnaissance - Hommage à nos Hommes d´exception! Merci Pius NDJAWE
( | 06.08.2010 | 13467 hits  | 0 R)

  Décès jeudi de Jean Bikoko, l’un des doyens de la musique camerounaise
( | 22.07.2010 | 17642 hits  | 0 R)

  Le diagnostic d’un échec
( | 18.07.2010 | 12906 hits  | 0 R)

  Au-delà de la débâcle des Lions indomptables au Mondial 2010
( | 25.06.2010 | 16922 hits  | 1 R)

  La Halte du Cinquantenaire ! Par Charles MOUKOURI DINA MANGA BELL
( | 01.06.2010 | 15354 hits  | 0 R)

  Kessern aus Kamerun: Die Biografie eines schwarzen Crailsheimers (1896 - 1981)
( | 22.05.2010 | 20283 hits  | 1 R)

  L´indépendance, il y a 50 ans ! L´indépendance, depuis 50 ans ?
( | 17.05.2010 | 16222 hits  | 0 R)

  Indépendance, la désullision?
( | 27.04.2010 | 13605 hits  | 0 R)

  Cinquante ans de décolonisation africaine
( | 18.03.2010 | 16057 hits  | 0 R)

  Les circonstances de l`assassinat de UM Nyobe, par Louis Noé Mbengan
( | 18.03.2010 | 15735 hits  | 0 R)

  Chefferies traditionnelles du Littoral
( | 04.03.2010 | 24522 hits  | 0 R)

  Peuplesawa rencontre Miss EBENYE BONNY
( | 19.02.2010 | 17461 hits  | 0 R)

  Grand Sawa: Le retour aux démons du «qui perd gagne» dans les Chefferies de la région du Littoral
( | 18.02.2010 | 20916 hits  | 2 R)

  LE PEULE DUALA
( | 15.02.2010 | 26099 hits  | 0 R)

  In Memoriam: Mbella Sonne Dipoko - The Bard Who Dared To Be Different
( | 13.02.2010 | 16178 hits  | 0 R)



   0 |  1 |  2 |  3 |  4 |  5 |  6 |  7 |  8 |  9 |  10 |  11 |  12 |  13 |  14 |  15 |      ... >|



Jumeaux Masao "Ngondo"

Remember Moamar Kadhafi

LIVING CHAINS OF COLONISATION






© Peuplesawa.com 2007 | WEB Technology : BN-iCOM by Biangue Networks